Learn About CBD
The Kentucky Green Grass CBD Learning Center is designed to answer common questions about cannabidiol (CBD). As more is discovered about this incredible plant we will continue to keep it updated for you. enjoy our list of questions for those are looking to learn more about our processes, this plant, its properties and effects!
Hemp is a legal plant that the USDA defines as any Cannabis sativa L. variety containing THC concentrations of no more than 0.3%. This means the plant produces little to no THC, the phyto-cannabinoid found in marijuana that causes a feeling of intoxication.
Another key characteristic of our small-batch hemp is its surplus of CBD in comparison to marijuana (60% and up CBD vs less than .3% THC). Our hemp extracts are extremely low in THC, and they are rich in terpenes.
Terpenes are organic compounds found within hemp flower excretions. At Kentucky Green Grass, we develop the genetics for our hemp from outdoor farms, which use organic growing methods and no pesticides. We cultivate specialty high-terpene hemp plants specifically bred to for the production of hemp and CBD oil.
THE EASY QUESTIONS
WHAT IS CBD OIL?
CBD oil or cannabidiol oil is a substance derived from the hemp or cannabis plant containing high amounts of the cannabinoid cannabidiol.
Most CBD oil comes from industrial hemp rather than psychoactive marijuana strains; while the two plants are related, industrial hemp does not contain nearly as much psychoactive tetrahydrocannabiol, another cannabinoid better known as THC. In fact, according to the 2014 Farm Bill, industrial hemp cannot contain more than .3 percent THC on a dry weight basis – a nearly negligible amount.
WHAT DOES CBD OIL DO?
To answer this, we need to take a step back to address the endocannabinoid system, a system within the body whose receptors (CB1 and CB2) have an enormous impact on our health and well-being.
CB1 receptors in the brain are associated with emotions, mood, appetite, coordination, movement, and pain. CB2 receptors are found in the immune system and throughout tissues of the spleen and tonsils.
The endocannabinoid system is a relatively new discovery. In fact, it was actually discovered and named after the cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. Seeing as cannabinoids are the compounds that activate this system, many have posited that cannabinoids like THC or CBD could help improve endocannabinoid function.
DOES CBD OIL WORK?
Clinical trials are still confirming the efficacy of CBD oil, but many individuals have noted that it has a positive effect on their health and well-being.
The following chart from Mayo Clinic provides specific dosage recommendations for various illnesses:
Loss of Appetite in Cancer Patients: 2.5mg of THC (orally), with or without 1mg of CBD for six weeks.
Chronic Pain: 2.5-20mg of CBD [with or without THC] (orally).
Epilepsy: 200-300mg of CBD (orally) daily.
Movement Problems Due to Huntington’s Disease: 10mg of CBD per kg of body weight daily for six weeks (orally).
Sleep Disorders: 40mg-160mg of CBD (orally).
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) symptoms: Cannabis plant extracts containing 2.5-120 milligrams of a THC/CBD combination daily for 2-15 weeks. Patients typically use eight sprays within any three hours, with a maximum of 48 sprays in any 24-hour period.
Schizophrenia: 40-1,280mg oral CBD daily.
Glaucoma: A single sublingual CBD dosage of 20-40mg (>40 mg may increase eye pressure).
HOW MUCH DO CBD OIL PRODUCTS COST?
CBD oil products have a big range in price, due to concentration of CBD, quality of extraction methods, and overall purity of the product but generally, it will cost between $50-200 per ounce.
WHAT SHOULD I LOOK FOR WHEN CHOOSING A CBD OIL?WHICH CBD PRODUCTS SHOULD I AVOID?
Because CBD oil is not yet heavily regulated by the government, it's easy for companies to sell products that contain little to no CBD... or that contain nasty little extras you'd rather avoid (like heavy metals or pesticides).
To make sure that you're opting for only the best CBD oil, choose products made with organic hemp. Kentucky Green Grass farms using organic methods to ensure only the best product is coming to you.
Also be sure you're opting for CBD oils extracted with CO2 rather than butane, and always ask for lab tests from the company if they are not already prominently displayed on their site: any company producing its CBD oil properly will be proud to give this information, which indicates not only how much CBD is present as well as the presence of any pesticides or heavy metals. Kentucky Green Grass even does batch testing, so you can see the results from the exact batch of CBD oil you have purchased. Check the QR code on your bottle of CBD from Kentucky Green Grass and see the results for your particular batch!
HOW DO I TAKE CBD AND AT WHAT DOSAGE?
Before adding CBD oil to your regimen, as with any supplement, be sure to check with your doctor to make sure that it's a good choice for you. This is especially true if you are taking certain anti-seizure medications.
CBD oil can be consumed in a myriad of ways: tinctures, oil vaping, capsules, sublinguals, or even topicals. Here at Kentucky Green Grass we provide sublingual (under the tongue) tincture and we use this chart as a baseline for each individual due to the variations in the ways which people metabolize the CBD.
Using a CBD tincture is one of the easiest ways to consume CBD. Simply fill the dropper to the proper line, administer the oil under your tongue, then hold it there for 30 to 90 seconds before swallowing.
The 1500 MG formulation packs 50 MG of cannabidiol into every 1 ML (full dropper) of CBD oil. Usually we recommend starting with 1/4 of a dropper twice a day (12.5 MG per dose) with additional doses for acute pain or anxiety throughout your day and gradually increasing until you get the relief you are seeking.
If your proper dosage (based on the weight/pain chart in the product images) of CBD is 25MG, and a single dropper of that 1500MG tincture contains 50MG, you’d simply fill the dropper halfway.
While we can estimate that this the right dosage for any given individual it doesn’t take into account important factors such as:
The weight of the individualThe individual’s body chemistryThe severity of the condition being treated
With that being said, there isn’t a “one size fits all” dosage, and there will be some trial and error while gauging your proper dosage. Because there is no FDA recommended dose, the information presented on this page is intended to serve only as an informational guide – a starting point of reference – and should never be considered medical advice.
WHAT IS SUBLINGUAL?
This means administering the substance directly to the sublingual gland, which is just beneath the tongue. You could administer CBD in the form of an oil, tincture, lozenge, or spray using this method–holding it under your tongue as long as you can so that the substance is absorbed by the glands and the mucous membranes. This allows the CBD to bypass the digestive system altogether in its journey to your bloodstream. Once the CBD oil is swallowed, some of the absorption process will still take place along the digestive tract.
HOW SHOULD I STORE KENTUCKY GREEN GRASS PRODUCTS?
Store in a cool, dry location, out of open sunlight. The typical medicine cabinet or pantry should be fine.
WHEN DOES CBD EXPIRE?
The shelf life of CBD oil is 1 year.
ARE THERE SIDE EFFECTS FROM TAKING CBD OIL?
CBD oil is generally considered to be safe for most people, and few people experience side effects. A 2017 literature review, however, noted that CBD oil can be linked to the following side effects in some cases:
It's important to note that the studies featured in this review mostly used higher doses of CBD oil than are generally available for over-the-counter use. The study authors also noted that more studies researching CBD side effects after "real chronic administration" would be necessary for a more conclusive safety profile.
CAN YOU GET HIGH FROM CBD OIL?
No. THC is the psychoactive cannabinoid that makes you high; CBD does not have any psychoactive properties. While our CBD oils are full-spectrum products and contain trace amounts of THC, it is not enough to make you high.
If you are at a risk for random drug tests, for example through your job, you may wish to choose a CBD oil that is entirely devoid of THC.
Is a standard hemp seed oil the same as a high-CBD hemp extract?
Definitely not. Standard hemp oil, which can be found very cheaply at a grocery store, is a much different product than our full spectrum hemp extracts (not from seed). Standard hemp oil is produced by cold pressing the seeds, whereas our hemp extract is a full plant extraction with many components not typically found in the seeds. Hemp seed oil is considered to be a great nutritive food, but it doesn’t have the naturally occurring terpenes, cannabinoids and other components that our extracts do have.
IS CBD A SCHEDULE 1 DRUG?
Technically speaking, yes: extracts of all plants from the cannabis genus were made schedule 1 drugs in early 2017. That said, the 2014 Farm Bill allows the cultivation and sale of hemp containing less than .3 percent THC, which includes hemp oil made from industrial hemp.
It's interesting to note that the FDA recently approved Epidiolex, a CBD-based epilepsy drug from GW Pharmaceuticals. This approval may have an effect on CBD's scheduling status.
"An approval might even mean that the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) would have to reschedule the specific marijuana component in the drug, CBD, because it will have proven to have a tangible medical benefit," writes Fortune.
UNDERSTANDING WHATS IN OUR PRODUCT
UNDERSTANDING THE HEMP PLANT
This brief look at cannabis chemistry is meant to arm you with a basic knowledge of how cannabis affects the brain and body. Not only will you better understand your medicine, you’ll be able to educate others about why cannabis can truly be an effective remedy for patients suffering a myriad of ailments.
Hemp oil is extracted from the Cannabis Sativa L. plant. The oil extracted contains naturally occurring phyto-cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), as well as many other types of natural molecules and phytochemical compounds.
Our Kentucky hemp extracts contain over 80 different phyto-cannabinoids. The primary phyto-cannabinoid highlighted in our products is CBD. CBD is an active phyto-cannabinoid in hemp and is also the most abundant, at 60% (and higher) of the extract’s make-up.
Phyto-cannabinoids are produced in hemp plants through biosynthesis. In addition to CBD, three other significant phyto-cannabinoids in our products are Cannabichromene (CBC), Cannabigerol (CBG), and Cannabinol (CBN). Each of these are non-psychoactive and closely related to CBD. Since cannabinoids work better synergistically, rather than individually, it’s important to take the time to learn about all the different ways the compounds in hemp and cannabis work together.
At Kentucky Green Grass, we develop the genetics for our hemp from outdoor farms, which use organic growing methods and no pesticides. We cultivate specialty high-terpene hemp plants specifically bred to for the production of hemp and CBD oil.
CANNABIDIOLIC ACID (CBDA)
In growing plants, CBD exists as cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). It isn’t until the plant is cut, dried, and heated that CBD is formed. CBD is a calming phytochemical that does not cause a psychotropic experience. Emerging pre-clinical evidence suggests that there may be some benefit to keeping the plant raw.
Here, “raw cannabis” refers to fresh leaves and flowers that have not been dried, cured, or heated. Unfortunately, substantial research on CBDA is lacking. However, preliminary research in the lab suggests that CBDA may be helpful in four distinct therapeutic areas. These include:
Inflammation - Laboratory research performed in cell cultures has found that CBDA has potential anti-inflammatory properties. A 2008 experiment published in Drug Metabolism and Disposition has found that CBDA is a selective COX-2 inhibitor.Simply explained, COX-2 is an enzyme that plays a role in the development of pro-inflammatory compounds called prostaglandins. This enzyme is a target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), like aspirin and ibuprofen.Nausea & vomiting - A 2012 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology has found that CBDA treatment reduces nausea behaviors in rodents.The study also found that the cannabinoid reduced vomiting in shrews. When compared to activated CBD, the researchers found that CBDA was actually more powerful in quieting an upset stomach.Anti-cancer - Research from 2012 has found that CBDA effectively halted migration in breast cancer cells cultured outside of the body. While experiments conducted in petri dishes are no comparison to clinical human trials, the cannabinoid did show some positive effects against a highly invasive form of breast cancer.Specifically, the CBDA treatment seemed to prevent the migration of breast cancer cells. In theory, a therapy that stops cancer cell migration would prevent the disease from spreading to other parts of the body. Psychosis - As with almost all cannabis research, high-quality studies on CBDA for anxiety are sorely needed. However, one biopharmaceutical company already has a patent on CBDA for the potential treatment of psychotic disorders.Britain's GW Pharmaceuticals included CBDA into a patent on the use of cannabinoids in conjunction with antipsychotic medications. The patent also included the cannabinoids CBD, THCV, THCVA, CBC, CBCA, CBG, and CBGA.
Like CBD, CBG does not produce a “high” like THC does.
In fact, both THC and CBD start out as cannabigerol. Essentially, cannabis plants produce cannabigerol acid. Specific enzymes in the plant then breaks down the CBGA into the the acidic form of THC and CBD (known as THCA/CBDA). Next, THC and CBD form as the acid burns off via decarboxylation.
CBG works by increasing anadamide levels. Anandamide is an endocannabinoid, a naturally occurring cannabinoid found throughout our bodies, that helps regulate biological functions including appetite, sleep, and memory.
Cannabigerol stimulates bone formation and healing. In a study published on pubmed.gov, “Age-related osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone formation and accumulation of fat in the bone marrow compartment. Here, we report that the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) regulates this process.” Results showed they could stimulate bone marrow stem cells by regulating osteoblast (bone formation) and adipocyte (fat accumulation in connective tissue) differentiation in marrow stromal cells.Slows tumor growth! CBD, CBG, and CBC were all shown to slow the progression and growth of tumors and cancer cells. In a study published by cannabisinternational.org, CBG and other cannabinoids seem to have anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic effects.CBG has shown to have anti-fungal and antimicrobial properties, which make it a candidate for antifungal and antibacterial treatment. Some scientists believe CBG could be part of an effective treatment against MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus), a highly prevalent antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria.CBG is also showing promising results for treating overactive bladder, Psoriasis skin treatment, Glaucoma, depresssion and anxiety and neuroprotective effects.
It can be extremely difficult to extract CBG because most varieties of cannabis plants convert CBG into THC or CBD by the time the plant is mature for harvest. We are strive to offer hemp extracts that are endowed with CBG components.
CBC, another phyto-cannabinoid found in our products, is produced over time within hemp plants when CBGA and the CBCA enzyme synthesize to create CBCA, an acidic form of CBC.
Unlike CBC, CBN is not derived from CBGA. Instead, it is formed in hemp plants when an acid called CBNA undergoes decarboxylation.
Bone tissue growth. Studies show that CBN causes an indirect recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells that surround bone marrow. These stem cells are able to turn into bone and other tissues making it a possible candidate for healing bone fractures. The Journal of Neuroimmunology offers more information on this subject.Like other cannabinoids, CBN is an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid that also has pain relief properties and preliminary research shows promise that CBN combined with CBD may prove to be an effective treatment for burns.Sedative. According to a Royal Queen Seeds article, research shows that CBN can sometimes be as effective as pharmaceutical sedatives.Scientists are also studying CBN as a possible sleep aid, an appetite stimulant, and as an anti-convulsive agent. CBN seems to work best symbiotically with CBD and THC.
Next up is THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin). The THCV compound makeup is very similar to the infamous THC cannabinoid, but it affects the body differently.
Both THC and THCV are psychoactive and will cause the user to get “high.” When THC binds to the body’s CB1 and CB2 receptors it activates them initiating the “high” effect. At low doses THCV also binds to those same receptors, but it does not activate them, behaving more like CBD. At higher dosages, THCV will activate the CB1 receptor much like THC and will produce a psychoative “buzz.”
The feeling THCV produces seems to come on faster than THC and fades out faster as well. Users report a more clear-headed and stimulating high.
THCV Benefits, according to Leafly’s Bailey Rahn:
THCV may have anti-convulsive properties and can raise the seizure threshold for those with epilepsy. As a result, they experience fewer seizures.Researchers are studying THCV’s ability to stimulate bone growth as a potential treatment for osteoporosis and other bone conditions.THCV counteracts feelings of anxiety and shown to be effective in PTSD treatment.Improves motor control, reduce tremors, and lessen the effects of brain lesions caused by Alzheimer’s disease. However it’s important to know that research is in the early stages and much more information is still needed.Researchers believe THVC blocks the rewarding sensations we experience when eating, especially the unhealthy, comfort foods.
OTHER NATURALLY OCCURRING MOLECULES
Vitamins (including B1, B2, B6, D)
Fatty acids (including omega 3 & 6)
Trace minerals (including iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium)
Our hemp extracts may be extremely low in THC, but they are rich in terpenes. Terpenes are organic compounds found within hemp flower excretions. At Kentucky Green Grass, we develop the genetics for our hemp from outdoor farms, which use organic growing methods and no pesticides. We cultivate specialty high-terpene hemp plants specifically bred to for the production of hemp and CBD oil.
WHAT ARE TERPENES?
The cannabis plant consists of a wide variety of chemicals and compounds. About 140 of these belong to a large class of aromatic organic hydrocarbons known as terpenes (pronounced tur-peens).
In most cases, each cannabis plant strain’s unique characteristics are determined by the scent of its terpenes. These peculiar and powerful molecules influence the taste and feel of hemp extract. In addition to being an essential component of our supplements, terpenes are commonly leveraged in the production of balsams, essential oils, and other plant by-products.
The most common terpenes in our hemp extracts are Myrcene, Beta-caryophyllene, Terpinolene, Linalool, alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene, Nerolidol og Phytol, trans-alpha-Bergamotene, Limonene/ beta-Phellandrene (Co-elution), and alpha-Humulene.
Terpenes, unlike cannabinoids, are responsible for the aroma of cannabis. The FDA and other agencies have generally recognized terpenes as “safe.” Terpenes act on receptors and neurotransmitters; they are prone to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats; they act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (similar to antidepressants like Prozac); they enhance norepinephrine activity (similar to tricyclic antidepressants like Elavil); they increase dopamine activity; and they augment GABA (the “downer” neurotransmitter that counters glutamate, the “upper”). However, more specific research is needed for improved accuracy in describing and predicting how terpenes in cannabis can be used medicinally to help treat specific ailments/health conditions.
HOW DO YOU EXTRACT THE CBD FROM THE HEMP PLANT?
We use ethanol/alcohol to extract our hemp, the most historically used method for cannabis/hemp extracts. It is a clean and cold extraction method that allows for optimal retention of terpenes and other sensitive compounds. We also employ low-temperature and relatively low-pressure CO2 extractions for our products.
WHAT IS CO2 TECHNOLOGY?
Our product is extracted using super-critical CO2 Technology, which results in a clean and safe product. To produce that clean clear appearance of our product Kentucky Green Grass removes waxes and other resins that could affect the body’s ability to absorb the product.
‘FULL SPECTRUM’ MEANS MORE CANNABINOIDS, FLAVONOIDS & TERPENES
Full spectrum means that all of the cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes found in the plant have been extracted and used in the CBD or hemp oil.
When a consumer ingests full spectrum oil, many scientists believe that it takes advantage of the “entourage effect.” This effect means that all cannabinoids, flavonoids, fatty acids, terpenes, and other plant compounds are working in concert with one another to maximize their benefits.
THC and CBD are the two most active cannabinoids in marijuana. They share a special synergy that contributes most to the entourage effect. While many people report benefits from low-THC, hemp-derived CBD extracts and full spectrum hemp oils. Others find they need the presence of THC for maximum effect.
CBD products made from hemp should be legal in all 50 states, while only portions of the U.S. currently have access to recreational or medicinal marijuana. We recommend trying everything that’s available to you to find out what works best for your needs.
WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF COMBINING THC WITH CBD?
Claims have surfaced pointing to the possibility that CBD is more effective when taken in a 1:1 ratio with THC; this contributes to rumors that CBD oil produced from industrial hemp is less effective than CBD oil produced from cannabis.
Studies have shown that CBD and THC may well have a synergistic effect, for example in one study with cancer patients. The issue, however, lies in the legality and psychoactive properties of THC.
"The better question would be, ‘can I take THC with my CBD and take advantage of the synergy, or do I have to forgo THC because I can’t be high right now?’" explains Steve Looi, Director of Origination at White Sheep Corp., a Toronto-based cannabis commercial operator and strategic investor with holdings in Canada and the US. "In the end it’s likely a case of take them together when you can and CBD alone when you have to."
If you cannot take a 1:1 THC to CBD product, then you may actually be better off opting for a full-spectrum oil made from industrial hemp, which is naturally low in THC but boasts other cannabinoids and compounds.
"Much of the data that we have on cannabinoids refers generally to cannabinoids as a general concept, as opposed to specifically CBD or THC," explains Dr. Nathan. "Therefore, it's difficult to see, when you see a benefit of cannabis, whether it was the THC, the CBD, a combination of the THC and CBD… or a combination of THC plus CBD plus any of the other 100 or more cannabinoids that are available in the plant."
"I tend to think that in most plants, nature evolves them to be the ideal expressions of that particular plant," says Chris Kilham, Medicine Hunter. "So I think that there's almost always a case to be made for using a whole plant."
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN ISOLATE CBD OIL AND WHOLE PLANT/FULL SPECTRUM CBD OIL?
"Full spectrum" or "whole plant" CBD oil will contain trace amounts of THC as well as other cannabinoids. This contributes to the much-touted "entourage effect," which Dr. Joseph Nathan, Director of the International Drug Information Center, notes allows users to reap the benefits of not only the hundreds of cannabinoids but also the flavonoids and terpenes present in the plant.
Isolate CBD oils are made by isolating only the CBD present in the plant; THC and other cannabinoids will not be present in these oils.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CBD OIL AND 100% HEMP OIL?
Hemp oil is the name given any oil derived from the hemp plant; CBD oil is an oil containing high amounts of CBD, made from either the hemp or the cannabis plant. While much CBD oil is also hemp oil, not all hemp oil is CBD oil; hemp oil made from the seeds of the hemp plant will not contain active CBD.
THE HARD QUESTIONS
IS CBD OIL LEGAL?
Yes! Most CBD oil is produced from industrial hemp, the same plant used to make hemp textiles and hemp seeds. This plant contains trace amounts of psychoactive THC – not enough to make you high and usually not even enough to make you fail a drug test.
WILL YOU FAIL A DRUG TEST IF YOU TAKE CBD?
The trace amounts of THC in full-spectrum oils should not make you fail a drug test, but some trustworthy companies, such as PlentyPharma, provide solutions completely devoid of THC for those for whom random drug testing is a concern.
WILL CBD OIL PASS SECURITY AT THE AIRPORTS?
Yes… but it might not pass customs! CBD oil is not yet legal in all countries; while some countries exist in a relative grey area, such as France, in some countries, including Australia and China, CBD oil is illegal and could cause you big problems (including fines or even jail time) if you bring it into the country.